cfa-mir-346: Cfa-mir-346, a microRNA, is induced in canine macrophage-like cells upon infection with live parasites, specifically Leishmania spp [PMC9235276]. The induction of cfa-mir-346 in these cells is not associated with the induction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker sXBP1 [PMC9235276]. In dogs, cfa-mir-346 has been found to be upregulated in cardiac hypertrophy [PMC9235276] [PMC8542680]. The upregulation of cfa-mir-346 was observed in a canine macrophage-like cell line (DH82) infected with Leishmania spp, regardless of the strain or time point tested [PMC9235276]. The induction of cfa-mir-346 was not observed in response to ER stress induction with tunicamycin [PMC9235276]. Cfa-mir-346 is located within the glutamate ionotropic receptor delta type subunit 1 (GRID1) gene [PMC9235276]. In clinical samples, an increase in cfa-mir-346 expression levels was detected in the plasma of dogs infected with Leishmania spp, suggesting its potential as a non-invasive marker of infection [PMC9235276]. However, further studies are needed to understand its role during Leishmania infection and evaluate its specificity as a biomarker for canine leishmaniasis [PMC9235276].
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